Monthly lifestyle counselling improves heart outcomes

Adapted from Intensive lifestyle counselling and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with diabetes. September 14 2019  Diabetes in Control by Nour Salhab. Pharm. D from Zhang et al Lifestyle counselling and long term clinical outcomes in patients with diabetes. Diabetes Care. Aug. 2019.

Intensive lifestyle counselling has been shown to improve blood sugars in the Look AHEAD study but it was too underpowered to show any significant conclusions regarding cardiac outcomes.

This new study looked at patients with both type one and type two diabetes who had HbAICs over 7% and were over the age of 18. Lifestyle counselling involved diet, exercise and weight loss management. The goal was to get the patient’s HBAICs under 7%.

19,293 patients were involved and the mean HbAIC at the start was 7.8%. My comment: This is a very good average compared to British diabetics! 

The mean counselling sessions were 0.46 a month and the study ran for 5.4 years.

HbAIC reduced by 1.8% for patients who got monthly counselling and 0.7% for those who got less than monthly counselling.

The primary end point was time to the first episode of angina, heart attack or stroke or death from any cause. There was a small but significant decrease in the group who had monthly counselling compared to three monthly counselling.

The counselling occurred in academic centres so may not be applicable to other settings.

My comment: This level of counselling is much more intensive than can probably be delivered in the NHS population. The blood sugar levels in the patients was also much better to start with compared to the UK population. 

A little care goes a long way

Adapted from Annals of Family Medicine 2019 doi:10.1370/afm.2421

People diagnosed by their GP with type two diabetes had a 40-50% lower mortality rate over the next ten years if they experienced their GP and practice nurses as empathetic during the year after diagnosis, compared to those who considered that their primary health carers had low empathy.

This study looked at 879 patients recruited from 49 GP practices in the east of England.

My comment: The first year is when patients get their head round the fact that they have a long term condition that could affect how long they will live and the quality of the life they have left. At diagnosis many are willing to look at lifestyle changes. Encouraging them, helping them, and helping them set appropriate goals makes a good difference to a person’s ability to change their daily routines. If you are newly diagnosed and don’t get on with your health care providers for any reason, then maybe a change of provider makes sense in the light of this research. 

The optimal HbA1C for non low carbing type ones could be 6.5-7%

Adapted from Lind M et al. BMJ 28 August 2019

In type one diabetes in adults and children there could be a sweet spot for blood sugar control.

Under 6.5% severe hypoglycaemia rates increase. Retinopathy and nephropathy risks are not lower however below 6.5% compared to 6.9%. My comment:  In low carbers however, they have considerable protection against severe hypoglycaemia due to more precise meal/insulin matching, although they do experience more episodes of mild hypoglycaemia.

Risks for mild complications begin at levels over 7.0% and severe complications rise with levels over 8.6%.

Current guidelines vary in their HbA1C recommendations, anywhere from 6.5% to 7.5%.

The complication rates were based on 10,398 adults and children with type one diabetes on the Swedish National Diabetes Registry who were diagnosed between 1998 and 2017.

 

 

 

Soldiers improve their physique on a ketogenic diet

Adapted from Military Medicine January 2019 by Richard Al LaFountain et al of Ohio State University.

This is the first study of a ketogenic diet in military personnel. Daily ketone monitoring was done to personalise the diet. 29 subjects from various branches of the military took part over the 12 week study.

15 self selected to go on the ketogenic diet (KD) monitored by blood ketones daily. 14 continued their mixed diet (MD). Various measurements were done at the start and end of the programme.

All of the KD group were in ketosis throughout the 12 weeks as assessed by beta-hydroxybutrate levels. The KD group lost 7.7kg more (range -3.5 to -13.6kg) despite no calorie restriction. They lost 5.1% body fat (range -0.5 to -9.6%). 43.7% was visceral fat (range – 3.0  to – 66.3%) and had a 48% improvement in insulin sensitivity. There were no changes in the MD group.  There were no changes between the groups in aerobic capacity, maximal strength, power and a military specific obstacle course.

The authors conclude that this was a very well accepted intervention which showed remarkable improvements in body composition and weight without compromising physical performance in exercise training.

In the USA two thirds of active military personnel are overweight or obese which mirrors the general population. Nearly three out of four young people aged 17-24 fail to qualify for military service mainly due to obesity and failure to meet fitness standard thus posing an impending recruitment crisis.

The military usually follow the USDA’s dietary guidelines that advocates low fat, high carbohydrate foods. Americans have followed these recommendations for decades and have seen a marked rise in obesity at the same time. A diet that emphasises carbohydrate has the effect on suppressing fat oxidation and the production of ketones. Over half of active military personnel report drinking sugar and caffeine containing energy drinks in the past month.

Ketones produced while following a ketogenic diet have been shown to improve fat oxidation, enhance gene expression, inflammation, antioxidant defense and  healthspan. Fat loss without the explicit need to restrict calories is a benefit. Reversal of metabolic syndrome and obesity occurs. Previous studies have shown no detrimental impact on endurance and resistance training performance. The study was done in the military to see if this was a feasible approach.

The success of a ketogenic diet depends on commitment so we did not randomise the subjects. Both groups took part in identical physical training that emphasised strength and power.

Participants were recruited from the Ohio State Reserve Officer Training Corps and other local groups with a military affiliation.  We wanted people as similar as possible to the demographics of serving soldiers regarding age, sex, race and body mass. Participants were excluded if they had had previous experience of a ketogenic diet, were over 50, had certain illnesses, conditions, medications or allergies or who could not exercise safely.

The KD group were coached and were provided with unlimited frozen, pre-cooked meals and grocery supplies.  Carbohydrate was limited initially to 25g per day and protein to 90 g/d until ketosis occurred. Thereafter they could increase the amounts in their diet provided they stayed in ketosis. They were encouraged to use salt.  Carbohydrate was targeted at less than 50g per day including non starchy vegetables, nuts, seeds, selected fruit and berries. Protein goals were 0.6 – 1.0g g/kg of lean body mass. Total energy intake was not restricted. Non starchy vegetables and fats were encouraged to reach satiety. Alcohol over 2 drinks a day was discouraged in both groups.  Participants checked their blood ketones every morning and sent pictures of their readings to the research team.

The mixed diet group had a minimum consumption of 40% dietary calories from carbohydrate.  All participants met with registered dieticians and were encouraged to eat to satiety with no specific caloric limit. Dietary supplements were not allowed.

All groups undertook a progressive resistance training programme two days a week for an hour at a time. They had one additional cardio training session a week consisting of running and body weight circuit training for at least 30 minutes. Each resistance training session ended with 15 minutes of whole body, high intensity circuit training.

Body mass and body composition was measured by DEXA. Fat was assessed by MRI. Indirect calorimetry was used to evaluate resting metabolic rate and the respiratory exchange ratio.

The most noteworthy result was a spontaneous reduction in energy intake resulting in a uniformly greater weight loss for the ketogenic group.  The visceral fat was also markedly reduced which leads to a reduced risk for insulin resistance and cardiometabolic disease.  Insulin sensitivity improved in the ketogenic group.

Normalisation of weight is important for soldiers because non combat musculoskeletal injury is 33% more common in this group.

Subjects in this study were overweight but not obese, so the weight loss effect could be expected to be even more in obese subjects.  Release of fatty acids and ketones are likely the cause of the satiety effect leading to less hunger. The weight loss in the ketogenic group was 80% from body fat mass.  44% of the fat lost was from the viscera, largely in the middle of the body.

Because the subjects decided what diet they would follow, selection bias can’t be ruled out. The KD  group was also slightly heavier at baseline than the MD group.  The two women in the KD group responded similarly to the men.

 

 

 

 

Nutrition Coalition: Type Two rates are down in the USA

RATES OF TYPE 2 DIABETES ARE DOWN…!
The CDC reports that “New cases of diagnosed diabetes in the U.S. decreased by 35 percent since a peak in 2009 – the first sign that efforts to stop the nation’s diabetes epidemic are working…”

What are the reasons? One major change that we can see is that two nutritional approaches have been established by clinical trials to reverse T2 diabetes: (1) the keto diet or (2) a very-low calorie formula diet. Perhaps people are finding out about these options.

A third evidence-based option for reversing T2 diabetes is bariatric surgery.

Heartburn can be treated with Imipramine

From Cheong K et al. Low dose imipramine for refractory functional dyspepsia: a randomised double blind placebo controlled trial. Lancet Gastroenterology Hepatol. Oct 22 2018.

Heartburn is a miserable and very common symptom. It can be treated with antacids such as Peptac and Gaviscon and drugs such as Ranitidine and Omeprazole or Lansoprazole.  Domperidone, which increases gut motility can be used short term. But sometimes these don’t work.

Imipramine is an old anti depressant drug which was used in this recent drug trial for heartburn that had not responded to Esomeprazole and Domperidone.

107 patients entered the trial. The treatment arms were placebo or imipramine 25mg at night for two weeks, then 50mg a night for a total of 12 weeks.

In the Imipramine arm 63% of patients got a good reduction in symptom score compared to placebo’s 36.5%.

There was a higher rate of stopping the Imipramine, 18% versus 8% for the placebo. The side effects were dry mouth, constipation, drowsiness, insomnia, palpitations and blurred vision.

My comment: The re use of this old drug will be very helpful for patients who have run out of options for their heartburn. Many patients get an excellent effect when they go on a low carb diet too. The side effects of this are: slim down, lose belly fat, feel more energetic, clearer skin and for diabetics a great improvement in blood sugar control.

 

Type Ones get near normal blood sugars on very low carb diets

Adapted from Management of Type One Diabetes with a very low carbohydrate diet by Belinda S Lennerz et al. Pediatrics Volume 1 number 6, June 2018.

Exceptional glycaemic control of type one diabetes mellitus with low rates of adverse events was reported by a community of children and adults who consumed a very low carb diet. This study was done by recruiting patients via an online survey. Their medical records were then used to confirm their results.

Of the 316 respondents, just over a third were parents of diabetic children. The mean age of diagnosis was 16 years and the duration of diabetes was a mean of 11 years. The mean time of following a VLCD was just over 2 years. The mean daily carb intake was 36g. The mean HbA1c was 5.67%. Only 2% of the respondents reported diabetic hospitalisations. 4 admissions were for DKA and 2 for hypoglycaemia.

In the USA the average HbA1C for type one diabetics is 8.2%.  The ADA target to reduce complications is set at under 7.5% for children and under 7% for adults. Only 20% of children and 30% of adults reach these targets.

A major difficulty is achieving post meal blood sugar targets. The carbohydrate load has the greatest influence on this. A VLCD is regarded as between 20 and 50g of carb at each meal or between 5-10% of total meal calories from carbohydrate. Some practitioners worry about advising diabetics about VLCD because of concerns about DKA, hypos, lipid problems, nutrient deficiency, growth failure and sustainability.

The study was approved by the Boston Children’s Hospital.  The recruitment group were people who were following Dr Bernstein’s Diabetes Solution. They came from the USA, Canada, Europe and Australia. They were all confirmed as having type one diabetes from their medical records.

Symptomatic hypoglycaemia was reported by 69% of the participants but severe hypos were rare. Most people had 1-5 episodes of mild hypos a month.

Most people had the characteristic low triglycerides, high HDL, high total cholesterol and high LDL pattern.  The average trig/hdl ratio was 1:1 indicating excellent cardiometabolic health. BMI was also lower than population averages for age. The DCCT covered 1441 adolescents and young adults and the factors that showed the greatest effect on cardiovascular risk were: HbA1c, then trigs, then LDLc.

The commonly reported growth deceleration noted with type one diabetes is generally thought to be due to poor blood sugar control.  In this study group however the children’s height were modestly above averages for age and gender.

A few participants deliberately did not disclose their low carb diets to their health care providers due to concerns about being criticised, pressured to change behaviour or accused of child abuse. Although 49% of participants thought that their health care provider approved of VLCDs, a robust 82% of the health care providers said they did.

We don’t know how generalisable the findings in this study could be. This group may be particularly well motivated and may be pursuing other health related behaviours such as physical activity. None the less,  the level of glycaemic control and low rates of DKA and severe hypos revealed by this study break new ground in research into diabetes management for type one diabetes.